I would like to understand the overall process of a business. My questions are:
How do you get customers from a different geography? Basically, how do you get clients? What is the ideal process in marketing?
Ideally, how does a business generate cash? How does a business close a customer deal?
How do I do business in a global environment -- Did I rephrase your question correctly?
If so, it's the same way as you would do business in your local area. You see a need, you fill it. Let me give you an example.
I run a consultancy, a service business. I work from home. My clients are from the US, Europe, Asia, and from our own city. I communicate with them using on-line communication tools, and at times, through my mobile phone. Everything we do is through the Internet. When hard copies are needed, they get sent using federal express. For financial transactions, we use on-line payment tools like paypal.
Marketing. In my line of work, I don't cold call to get new clients. I network. I have a blog. I join on-line communities/forums. Most of the time, I get new clients by referral. To close a business deal, potential clients take a look at my portfolio (previous work), and we get to know each others needs better by communicating on-line. Again, we communicate using on-line communication tools like email, chat, or video chat. To seal an agreement or contract, often times, typing ACCEPT and affixing my name on the document is enough. We then make a hard copy (pdf) of the contract, sign it, and send them via snail mail.
Trust -- what if I get scammed?
These things happen. When I find myself at the losing end of a transaction, I charge it up to experience. Next time, I know what to do. Word gets around. People who scam, they don't last very long in this businesses. They make money short term, but lose a lot more long term. Don't worry about them.